EP 2 : ขั้นตอนการประเมิน Uncertainty of measurement #17025
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What is UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE? What does UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE mean?
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What is UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE? What does UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE mean? UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE meaning UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE definition UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/3.0/ license.
In crosscultural psychology, uncertainty avoidance is a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. It reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. Uncertainty avoidance is one of five key qualities or dimensions measured by the researchers who developed the Hofstede model of cultural dimensions to quantify cultural differences across international lines and better understand why some ideas and business practices work better in some countries than in others. According to the theory’s framework, the dimensions are only applicable to a society as a whole, not for each individual in the society.
The uncertainty avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which a typical person in a society feels uncomfortable with a sense of uncertainty and ambiguity. The fundamental issue here is how a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? Countries exhibiting strong uncertainty avoidance index (UAI) maintain rigid codes of belief and behavior and are intolerant of unorthodox behavior and ideas. Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles.
People in cultures with high uncertainty avoidance tend to be more rational. They try to minimize the occurrence of unknown and unusual circumstances and to proceed with careful changes step by step by planning and by implementing rules, laws and regulations. In contrast, low uncertainty avoidance cultures accept and feel comfortable in unstructured situations or changeable environments and try to have as few rules as possible. People in these cultures tend to be more pragmatic and more tolerant of change.
One of the foremost researchers in this field studying the terms and concepts of uncertainty avoidance is Hofstede. His \”cultural dimensions theory\” studies different dimensions of national culture, including power distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, longterm versus shortterm orientation, and the concepts of uncertainty avoidance.
David S. Baker and Kerry D. Carson performed a study to evaluate uncertainty avoidance among field sales personnel. They selected 155 subjects from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Their research pointed towards individuals using both attachment and avoidance to lower their uncertainty avoidance in the workplace. People who were high on uncertainty avoidance and those low on it behaved differently. Sales personnel who were low on uncertainty avoidance saw no need to attach with their team or adapt to their environment, but those high on it used both avoidance and attachment to deal with situations. Those who reported moderate levels of uncertainty avoidance preferred to use adaptation rather than attachment when needed.
It is also believed that the uncertainty avoidance index (UAI) has a significant effect on consumers’ acceptance of unfamiliar brands in the retail market. Brand familiarity, celebrity endorsement, and cultural differences all have an effect on determining an individual’s UAI. Eliane Karsaklian has studied the effect UAI has on consumers’ attitudes towards familiar and unfamiliar brands in different cultures (specifically American and French). She concludes that uncertainty avoidance has a deep role in shaping consumers’ attitudes towards brands.
What is Uncertainty Quantification (UQ)?
A brief overview of Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) and how it can help determine variations due to real world situations.
การใช้ scikit-mcda สำหรับ Decision Making Under Uncertainty
What is entropy? – Jeff Phillips
View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/whatisentropyjeffphillips
There’s a concept that’s crucial to chemistry and physics. It helps explain why physical processes go one way and not the other: why ice melts, why cream spreads in coffee, why air leaks out of a punctured tire. It’s entropy, and it’s notoriously difficult to wrap our heads around. Jeff Phillips gives a crash course on entropy.
Lesson by Jeff Phillips, animation by Provincia Studio.
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